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Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor Annealing Furnace - Copper. The atmosphere through which the tubes are passed in the furnace is known as "reducing", that is, it contains no free oxygen. As the tubes are brought up to the annealing temperature there is no possibility of oxidation and subsequent discoloration of the surface.

Scanned: October 12, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor Cleaning and Washing Department - here are located vats containing various cleaning solutions used to remove discoloration introduced by brazing operations. Lubricant and grease which may coat the part as a result of handling or processing are removed in the vapor-degreaser which is located at the left center. An extremely volatile solvent is vaporized by passing over steam heated coils, and the parts to be cleaned immersed in this atmosphere. A cooling section at the top of the unit condenses the solvent where it drops back to the bottom of the tank.

Scanned: October 9, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor Pressure Testing - Photo of one of the test racks used in processing of dehydrated and sealed coiled refrigeration tubing. After the inside diameter of the coil is inspected, one end is sealed with a crimp. It is then placed on a rack and the open end inserted into one of the six fixtures shown. A pressure of 250 lbs. per sq. inch of dehydrated air is put into the coil and it is pushed below the surface of the water. By this method leaks are readily detectable. The coil is then removed, the other end crimped in a manner similar to the first, leaving the inside diameter dry and clean for the eventual consumer.

Scanned: October 9, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor Machine Shop - This department comes under the supervision of the Engineering Department and is responsible for the maintenance of our equipment. Many of the tools used in the Manufacturing Department are also made here. In this department we find tool makers, welders, electricians, plumbers, carpenters, etc.

Scanned: October 9, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor Box Shop where the packing cases, crates and boxes used in shipment of our products are made. Over a period of time, standard specifications for packing have been developed, and when the mill orders which govern processing are written, notification goes to the Box Shop and crates are scheduled so that they will be available at the time the job is ready to ship.

Scanned: October 12, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Smelting

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor, Manufacturing Process Pouring molten copper from 10-ton ladle. [A worker manuvers a gigantic bucket and pours the liquid copper into a vat.]

Scanned: October 9, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Lake Chemical Company

Manufacturing Process, Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manpower, Labor Lake Chemical Company - Calumet, Michigan. A worker fills a poisonous 50 lb. bag labled T-B-C-S 53, a commercial grade of Tribasic Copper Sulfate representing a physical and chemical combination of basic copper and copper sulfate, insoluble in water. Its metal content is more than twice the percentage available in commercial copper sulfate (blue vitriol, blue stone.) [A skull and cross bones is shown next to the poison warning]

Scanned: October 13, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Lake Chemical Company

Manufacturing Process, Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manpower, Labor Lake Chemical Company - Calumet, Michigan. A worker fills a 50 lb.poisonous bag of C-O-C-S-56 which is a concentrated fungicide, insoluble in water containing 56% copper in the form of basic sulfates and chlorides. [A skull and cross bones appears on the bag.]

Scanned: October 12, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Lake Chemical Company

Manufacturing Process, Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manpower, Labor Lake Chemical Company - Calumet, Michigan. A worker fills a 50 lb. bag of Copper Hydrate, a Technical grade of cupric hydroxide.

Scanned: October 12, 2009


Calumet and Hecla Mills

Manufacturing Process, Mills and Millwork, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor, Transportation C & H Mills [View of a newly constructed building. Carpenters are working outside of the building. A horse and buggy is "parked" nearby.]

Scanned: January 4, 2010