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Calumet & Hecla Smelter

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Copper Mines and Mining, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor Inspecting copper cakes. [Two men are shown inspecting the cakes.]

Scanned: September 22, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Osceola

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Copper Mines and Mining, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor, Miners, Copper Miners Osceola Valve - Dewatering Project [A miner inspects the now exposed valve.]

Scanned: September 23, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - White Pine Mill

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Copper Mines and Mining, Manufacturing Process, Mills and Millwork, Manpower, Labor White Pine Mill Progress Photo - View of stamp mill looking N.E.

Scanned: September 24, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - White Pine Mill

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Copper Mines and Mining, Manufacturing Process, Mills and Millwork, Manpower, Labor White Pine Mill Progress Photo - View of Crushing Plant looking E.

Scanned: September 24, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - White Pine Mill

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Copper Mines and Mining, Manpower, Labor, Seasons, Winter White Pine Mill Progress Photo - View of Catch Basin on Big Iron River looking W.

Scanned: September 25, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - White Pine Mill

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Copper Mines and Mining, Buildings, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor White Pine Mill Progress Photo - View of Boiler House looking S. W.

Scanned: September 25, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - White Pine Mill

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Copper Mines and Mining, Manpower, Labor, Manufacturing Process, Mills and Millwork White Pine Mill Progress Photo - White Pine Mill Boiler House

Scanned: September 25, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor Pouring Copper. One of the oil fired furnaces used in the casting of round copper billets. Rigorous control of the temperature of the molten metal is necessary to insure a billet which is sound and free from porosity. The metal is being poured therough a cone known as a runner box, which is guided into place over the center of the mold by the operator at the lower left. The furnace operator at the right is handling a control which tilts the furnace and permits the metal to run into the vertical mold.

Scanned: September 28, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor This process shows pouring a series of nine round billets. The man on the right is watching the flow of molten metal through colored goggles and holds a rod in his hand which is used to "feel" the metal as it rises in the mold so he can signal the other operator to bring the furnace back to its melting position and shut off the flow. Previous to casting, phosphorus is added to the molten mass in the furnace to combine with any free oxygen, thus deoxidizing the metal. The furnace charge is then covered with charcoal to protect the metal against further oxidation. Prior to pouring molten metal into a mold, the surface of the mold is coated with a specially developed mold dressing.

Scanned: September 28, 2009


Calumet & Hecla - Wolverine Tube Division

Metal Trade, Copper Industry and Trade, Manufacturing Process, Manpower, Labor, Skilled Labor Pouring Brass. Brass casting furnace. Using the electric induction principle the charge is heated to pouring temperature. The charge is being poured through a conical runner box into a vertical mold which is water cooled. The operator has a feeler rod in his hand and is ready to tilt the furnace back to melting position when the mold has been filled. The molds for each pair of brass furnaces are rotated on a turntable.

Scanned: September 28, 2009